Yes. There are three types of ESD damage.
Upset failures (temporary)
Upset failures occur when ESD has caused a current flow that is not significant enough to cause total failure. However, when the item is in use, it may intermittently result in gate leakage, causing loss of software or incorrect storage of information.
Direct catastrophic failure (permanent)
Direct catastrophic failure occurs when a component is damaged to the point that it is no longer serviceable and will never again function. This is the easiest type of ESD damage to find since it usually can be detected during testing.
Latent failures occur when ESD weakens the component to the point that it will still function properly during testing; however, over time, the component will cause poor system performance, and eventually complete system failure will occur. This usually occurs or is first noticed in the field.